The government (Chính phủ), the main executive state power of Vietnam, is headed by the Prime Minister, who has several Deputy Prime Ministers and several ministers in charge of particular activities. The two ideologies function as a firm ideological basis and serve as guidance for the activities of the Party and state. The General Secretary is the de facto leader of Vietnam. "[4], The National Congress is the party's highest organ. [35] Standing Committee members cannot simultaneously be members of the Government. Three election commissions have been established to manage elections; at the central level is the Election Council, at the provincial level and in centrally-run cities the Election Committee is responsible for election monitoring and the Election Commission is responsible for election monitoring at constituencies. "[4] The CPV acts as the vanguard of the working people and the whole nation by representing their interests. Democracy is virtually non-existent. Others see Hồ Chí Minh Thought as a political umbrella term whose main function is to smuggle in non-socialist ideas and policies without challenging socialist legality. Moreover, the party seeks to influence the outcome of cases involving perceived threats to the state or the party's dominant position. The thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh were systematised in 1989, under the leadership of Nguyễn Văn Linh. [55], Local officials of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, its local head, and officials from other mass organisations in the locality have the right to attend the meetings of the People's Council and the People's Committee if relevant problems are discussed. [40], The current 500 members of the National Assembly were elected during the 2016 (15). Democracy and rights. The term "Vietnamese democracy movement" comprises any of various isolated efforts to seek democratic reforms in Vietnam. Vietnam-based Brotherhood for Democracy said in a statement that Vietnamese citizens have rights to exercise their political freedom in a peaceful manner to change the authoritarian communist regime into a multiparty and democratic system. "[4] Its organisation has been modelled after the state structure, and the VFF has its own independent statute. [31] It is the highest representative organ and the highest state organ. The committees supervise and conduct investigations within their respective competency and exercise powers which are stipulated by law. Following ratification of the decisions taken at the National Congress, the National Congress dissolves itself. Council for National Defense and Security, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Standing Committee of the National Assembly, "democratic consensus, coordinated and united action. [29] As with the President, the Government is elected by the deputies of the National Assembly for a five-year term. [5] Hồ Chí Minh's beliefs were not systematised during his life, nor quickly following his death. This aligns with our understanding of democracy, as an ideal: the power of the people, the will of the majority, and their freedom of choice, speech, right to vote, and so on. The powers of the Ethnic Council are comparable to those of the committees. [27] The most recent presidential elections were held on 25 July 2011, when Trương Tấn Sang, the incumbent, was re-elected by the deputies (members) of the National Assembly.[28]. ", "Head of Government in Vietnam - GOVERNMENT IN VIETNAM", "Preamble of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam", Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Nguyen Phu Trong re-elected Party General Secretary, "TIN HOẠT ĐỘNG CỦA CÁC TỔ CHỨC THÀNH VIÊN", "Truong Tan Sang elected Vietnamese state president", National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, "One-party Vietnam votes in national election", "Election results for NA and People's Council deputies announced", "Party wins big in Vietnam, but with a few twists", "Truong Tan Sang nominated as Vietnam's State President", "National Assembly elects new State President", "Report on completed census results: The 1/4/2009 Population and Housing Census", VUFO-NGO, Directory of Vietnam government ministry and agency websites,, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 26 February 2016 (Acting Head since 2015), General Secretary of the Central Committee, Head of the Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform, Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform, Active Citizens under Political Wraps: Experiences from Myanmar/Burma and Vietnam pub. The current constitution was adopted on 28 November 2013 by the National Assembly of Vietnam. The former President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Trương Tấn Sang (2001–2016) was directly elected from the provinces at the 8th Party Congress, held in 1996. What did Vietnam use before the Latin alphabet? The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Vietnam, its fifth, on 28 November 2013. "[47], Provinces and municipalities are subdivided into towns, districts and villages. However, the Department of State saw no evidence that the move actually achieved the stated goal. Vietnamese Communist Party General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong, seen here with US. [4], The SPC is the highest court for appeal and review, and it reports to the National Assembly, which controls the judiciary's budget and confirms the president's nominees to the SPC and SPP. [20] The Central Committee did this because the majority of its members were of provincial background, or were working in the provinces; because of this, these members were the first to feel the pinch when the economy began to stagnate during Lê Khả Phiêu's rule.[21]. According to the Government Web Portal, the operating principles of the courts are, during hearings, that the "judges and jurors are independent and only obey the laws." The Party's ideological foundation is Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thoughts. Attempts are being made to reduce widespread corruption, but no major political reforms are on the agenda. The Communist Party of Vietnam, the leading non-State organ, operates in accordance with the laws. Vietnam has a three-tier local government structure: provincial, district and commune levels. The party and state base on the ideologies of Marxism and Leninism. According to the official version, the Communist Party of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) is leading the Vietnamese people "in carrying out the country's renovation, modernisation and industrialisation." [30] The Prime Minister of the Government (Vietnamese: Thủ tướng Chính phủ) is the head of government and is elected or dismissed by the National Assembly, at the request of the president. Linh pursued a policy of economic and political decentralisation. The CPV espouses Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thought, the thoughts of the late Hồ Chí Minh. [24] The VFF is a voluntary mass organisation of political, socio-political and social organisations and "individuals from all classes, social strata, ethnic groups, and religions, including overseas Vietnamese. The legislature is, according to the constitution, the highest organ of the state. Vietnam's judiciary is also hampered by a shortage of lawyers and by rudimentary trial procedures[citation needed]. [4], The membership of the Standing Committee consists of the Chairman (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch Quốc hội), deputy chairmen and other members; these members are elected by the National Assembly. Outside the ruling troika, it was Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, the Chairman of the Government Office, who was elected with the highest margin, with 94.59 percent of the votes. [41] The last election was held, according to the authorities, in a democratic, fair, lawful and safe manner and was considered a success. "[4] The VFF is governed on the principles of "democratic consensus, coordinated and united action. [43], Nguyễn Sinh Hùng, the Chairman of the National Assembly, nominated Trương Tấn Sang for the Presidency. Moreover, the president has the right to decide on executive brands. All rights reserved. The National Assembly (Vietnamese: Quốc hội) is a unicameral legislative body, and is governed on the basis of democratic centralism. They are responsible for the studying and examination of bills, legislative initiatives, drafts of ordinances and other drafts of legal documents and reports assigned by the National Assembly or the Standing Committee. Vietnam, a one-party Communist state, has one of south-east Asia's fastest-growing economies and has set its sights on becoming a developed nation by 2020. "[54] The People's Committee is headed by a Chairman, who acts as the body's leader. The Vietnamese constitution and legislation provide for regular elections for the office of the President of the Socialist Republic, the National Assembly and the People's Councils. US History: Curriculum Resource & Lesson Plans, Common Core History & Social Studies Grades 9-10: Literacy Standards, Instructional Strategies for Teaching History, GED Social Studies: Civics & Government, US History, Economics, Geography & World, Praxis Social Studies - Content Knowledge (5081): Study Guide & Practice, ILTS Social Science - History (246): Test Practice and Study Guide, SAT Subject Test US History: Practice and Study Guide, SAT Subject Test World History: Practice and Study Guide, TExES History 7-12 (233): Practice & Study Guide, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Test Prep & Practice, NY Regents Exam - Global History and Geography: Test Prep & Practice, Biological and Biomedical The Standing Committee continues to function until a new National Assembly is elected. "[4] The CPV is subject to Vietnamese laws and the Constitution. [6] Hồ Chí Minh Thought, alongside Marxism–Leninism, became the official ideology of the CPV and the state in 1991. The Chairman of the Ethnic Council has to attend meetings of the Government which concern ethnic policy. According to the Party's statute, amended at the 9th National Congresson 22 April 2001, the CPV was "established and trained by President Hồ Chí Minh, has led the Vietnamese people to carry out successfully the August Revolution, establishing the Democratic Republic of Việt Nam, now the Soci… The National Assembly is a unicameral legislative body. Provinces and municipalities are centrally controlled by the national government. The common forms of democracy are direct democracy and representative democracy. Its aim is to create "a strong, independent, prosperous and democratic country with an equitable and civilized society, to realise socialism and ultimately, communism." [19] Because of the devolution of power, the powers of the Central Committee have increased substantially; for instance, when a two-thirds majority of the Politburo voted in favour of retaining Lê Khả Phiêu as General Secretary (the leader of Vietnam), the Central Committee voted against the Politburo's motion and voted unanimously in favour of removing Lê Khả Phiêu from his post of General Secretary. [2] The current Vietnamese state traces its direct lineage back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the 1945 August Revolution led by Hồ Chí Minh. The head of the SPP is elected, dismissed, or removed from office by a proposal of the President. The Supreme People's Procuracy observes the implementation of state organs and makes sure that Vietnamese citizens follow the law. From the evident development in countries that follow democracy such as the United States, Japan and the United Kingdom, and the obvious underdevelopment in those that don’t, for instance, Cuba, Vietnam and Nepal, there could be a slight tendency to think that democracy is necessary to bring development. The SPP respects the Constitution and state laws, practices public prosecution as stated by the law and ensures law enforcement. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. According to the constitution, the Standing Committee is responsible for 12 duties. Vietnam's legal system is based upon socialist legality according to Article 12 of the constitution. [18] The number of Central Committee members with a provincial background increased from a low of 15.6 percent in 1982 to a high of 41 percent in 2000. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Vietnamese Dictionary. [26] In addition to being the Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security and commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing or dismissing of the Vice Presidents, Prime Minister, Deputy Chief Judge of the Supreme People's Court and Head of the Supreme People's Procuracy, with the consent of the National Assembly through a simple majority vote. There are other specialised courts in Vietnam, including the Central Military Court, the Criminal Court, the Civil Court and the Appeal Court. Vietnam: Vietnam is a country located in Southeast Asia, sharing borders with Laos, China, and Cambodia, and lying along the South China Sea. Voter turnout was 99.51 percent; nearly 62 million people voted. How a Trump decision on trade became a setback for democracy in Vietnam Morning traffic fills a street in Hanoi. Trường Chinh's biography of "Chairman Hồ" in 1973 emphasised his revolutionary policies. [14] Delegates vote on policies and candidate posts within the central party leadership. The Deputy Heads, prosecutors and inspectors appointed by the SPP head can be dismissed by the President on the Head's request. Vietnam is a socialist republic led by the Communist Party of Vietnam. On the other hand, it is a one-party system, so some might be loathe to … [10] The final class barrier was removed in 2002, when party members were allowed to engage in private activities. Why did Vietnam adopt the Latin alphabet? The etymology of “democracy” stems from the Greek word dēmokratia, which is the composite of dēmos “the people”, and kratia “power rule”. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The executive branch is responsible for the implementation of political, economic, cultural, social, national defence, security and external activities of the state. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Quốc hội Việt Nam). [1] Executive power is exercised by the government and the President of Vietnam. Several capitalists were elected to the assembly, but due to the socialist ideology of the state, they are not allowed to sit on the assembly's Committee on Economy and Budget. Open Democracy Home Page Select language. [7], Since its foundation, the key ideology has been Marxism–Leninism, but since the introduction of a mixed economy in the late 1980s and 1990s, it has lost its monopolistic ideological and moral legitimacy. The President of Vietnam is the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of government in a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam. This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website The National Assembly has 500 members, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. [37] The National Assembly elects the Ethnic Council, which consists of a Chairman, Deputy Chairmen and other members. Although the constitution provides for independent judges and lay assessors (who lack administrative training), the United States Department of State maintains that Vietnam lacks an independent judiciary, in part because the Communist Party selects judges and vets them for political reliability. There is not a major movement in Vietnam to reform the current political system. [8] According to Pierre Brocheux, the author of Ho Chi Minh: a Biography, the current state ideology is Hồ Chí Minh Thought, with Marxism–Leninism playing a secondary role. The Supreme People's Court (Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao) is the highest court of appeal in Vietnam. "[4] According to the Party's statute, amended at the 9th National Congress on 22 April 2001, the CPV was "established and trained by President Hồ Chí Minh, has led the Vietnamese people to carry out successfully the August Revolution, establishing the Democratic Republic of Việt Nam, now the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam, to defeat foreign invaders, to abolish the colonial and feudalist regime, to liberate and reunify the country, and then carry out the cause of renovation and socialist construction and firmly defend national independence. ... the Vietnamese government frequently punished people for criticizing the government or for joining groups to promote democracy or human rights. Vietnam is a one-party socialist republic. The development of democracy is aimed at creating favourable conditions for socio-economic development. [4] Notable member organisations of the VFF include the General Confederation of Labour, the Hồ Chí Minh Communist Youth Union and the Veteran Association, among others. May 31, 2007 Wall Street Journal Asia The Vietnamese National Assembly elections on May 20 created a certain amount of publicity because 875 candidates were vying for only 500 seats and 180 of those candidates were “independents” not aligned with the ruling Communist Party. [25], The President of the Republic (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Việt Nam) is the head of state, elected to a five-year term by the National Assembly, and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum tenure of 3 terms. "[4] It believes in socialist internationalism of the working class, and supports the "struggle for peace, national independence, democracy and social progress of the world's people. Energized by past success but by no means content, Vietnam now aspires, by the year 2035, to modernity, industrialization, and a higher quality of life – aspirations that stand on three major pillars: economic prosperity, balanced with environmental sustainability; equity and social inclusion; and state capacity and accountability. In their respective constituencies, Nguyễn Phú Trọng, the General Secretary, was elected to the National Assembly with 85.63 percent of the votes, Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng was elected with 95.38 percent and President Trương Tấn Sang was elected with 80.19 percent. [15] It delegates some of its powers to the Secretariat and the Politburo when it is not in session.